Can I abbreviate in-text citations MLA?

Can I abbreviate in-text citations MLA?

Can I abbreviate in-text citations MLA?

Abbreviations are common in the list of works cited and in-text citations, although less common in the text of your writing. Do not use full stops or spaces between letters in an abbreviation that is made up of primarily of capital letters (e.g. PhD, US, DVD, FBI). ...

Can I abbreviate in-text citations Harvard?

When you cite from the same source again you only write the abbreviation. ... Provide the acronym/abbreviation of the organization in the reference list followed by the full name within parenthesis, for example: UN (United Nations).

How are abbreviations used in the list of works cited?

As you create your works cited list, you may use abbreviations as follows:

  • If the abbreviation ends in a lower-case letter, use a period after it. ...
  • Use two letter postal codes for U.S. states and Canadian provinces. ...
  • Use a period and a single space after each letter when using initials in a name.

How do you abbreviate references?

1 Answer. In business communications practice, "reference", "referring to", "with reference to" are abbreviated as "re" or "ref". Example 1: "Ref our telcon dtd. 12.24" means "Reference/referring to/with reference to our telephone conversation on December 24..."

What punctuation or abbreviations are used in an in-text citation?

Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.

How do you abbreviate paragraph when citing?

Standard abbreviations may be used in your citations. A list of acceptable, commonly used abbreviations can be found in the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., pp. 306-307....Standard APA Abbreviations.
Editioned.
Page(s)p. (pp.)
Paragraph(s)para(s).
PartPt.
Revised editionRev. ed.

Do you use & in APA?

When there are two authors, give both names as well as the date in parentheses. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word “and” and place a comma before the date. ... When there are three to five authors, use all of their last names in the first citation, and afterwards use the first author's name with et al.

How are abbreviations used in academic writing?

The first time you mention a phrase that can be abbreviated, spell it out in full and provide the abbreviation in parentheses. Use only the abbreviation thereafter. Only abbreviate phrases that occur three or more times in your paper. Avoid abbreviations in titles, headings, the abstract, and the reference section.

Can you use abbreviations in APA in-text citations?

According to the American Psychological Association (APA), abbreviations are best used only when they allow for clear communication with the audience. ... Do not use periods or spaces in abbreviations of all capital letters, unless it is a proper name or refers to participants using identity-concealing labels: G. R. R.

Can you abbreviate references in APA?

If a reference has a group author, the name of the group can sometimes be abbreviated—for example, “American Psychological Association” can be abbreviated to “APA.” You are not obligated to abbreviate the name of a group author, but you can if the abbreviation is well-known, will help avoid cumbersome repetition, or ...

How to use abbreviations in an APA citation?

  • Citations should be as condensed as possible, so you should know the basic rules of abbreviation endorsed by the APA to provide your readers with reference information. Always abbreviate the first and middle names of authors, editors, etc. Use the following abbreviations within citations (take note of capitalization): Pt.

When to use the abbreviation P in a citation?

  • p. or pp. These are included in the in-text citation. If one page number is being referred to, use the abbreviation p. for page. If there are multiple pages use pp. to represent pages. Example (Ezzy, 2002, p. 30) According to Gibbs (2009, pp. 34-35)

What is the abbreviation for page number in a citation?

  • These are included in the in-text citation. If one page number is being referred to, use the abbreviation p. for page. If there are multiple pages use pp. to represent pages. (Ezzy, 2002, p. 30) para. For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number and, if available, preceded by the abbreviation ‘para.’

When to use " and others " in a citation?

  • This means 'and others'. It is used in in-text citations where there are 3 or more authors. NOTE: full stop after 'al.' not after 'et' (Alberto, Jacobi & Keating, 1993) for the first citation and (Alberto et al., 1993) in subsequent citations.

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